Sunday, May 24, 2020
Many people refill single-use plastic bottles (Plastic #1, PET) as a cheap way to carry water. That bottle was bought with water in it in the first place Ã¢â¬â what can go wrong? While a single refill in a freshly drained bottle probably will not cause any problem, there can be some issues when it is done repeatedly. First, these bottles are difficult to wash and are thus likely to carry the bacteria that have started colonizing it the minute you first unsealed it. In addition, the plastic used in the manufacturing of these bottles is not made for long term use. To make the plastic flexible, phthalates might be used in the manufacturing of the bottle. Phthalates are endocrine disruptors, a major environmental concern, and which can mimic the actions of hormones in our body. Those chemicals are relatively stable at room temperature (as well as when the plastic bottle is frozen), but they can be released into the bottle when the plastic is warmed. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) states that any chemical released from the bottle has been measured at a concentration below any established risk threshold. Until we know more, itÃ¢â¬â¢s probably best to limit our use of single-use plastic bottles and to avoid using them after they have been microwaved or washed at high temperatures.Ã Plastic (#7, polycarbonate) The rigid, reusable plastic bottles often seen clipped to a backpack are labeled as plastic #7, which usually means there are made of polycarbonate. However, other plastics can get that recycling number designation. Polycarbonates have been under scrutiny lately because of the presence of bisphenol-A (BPA) that can leach into the bottleÃ¢â¬â¢s content. Numerous studies have linked BPA with reproductive health problems in test animals, and in humans too. The FDA states that so far they have found the levels of BPA leached from polycarbonate bottles to be too low to be a concern, but they do recommend limiting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to BPA by not heating up polycarbonate bottles, or by selecting alternate bottle options. Plastics containing BPA are no longer used in the United States for the manufacturing of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s sippy cups, baby bottles, and baby formula packaging. BPA-free polycarbonate bottles were advertised to capitalize on the public fears of BPA and fill the resulting market gap. A common replacement, bisphenol-S (BPS), was thought to be much less likely to leach out of the plastics, yet it can be found in the urine of most Americans tested for it. Even at very low doses, it has been found to disrupt hormone, neurological, and heart function in test animals. BPA-free does not necessarily mean safe. Stainless Steel Food grade stainless steel is a material that can safely be in contact with drinking water. Steel bottles also have the advantages of being shatter resistant, long-lived, and tolerant of high temperatures. When choosing a steel water bottle, make sure the steel is not found solely on the outside of the bottle, with a plastic liner inside. These cheaper bottles present similar health uncertainties as polycarbonate bottles.Ã Aluminum Aluminum water bottles are resistant and lighter than steel bottles. Because aluminum can leach into liquids, a liner has to be applied inside the bottle. In some cases that liner can be a resin that has been shown to contain BPA. SIGG, the dominant aluminum water bottle manufacturer, now uses BPA-free and phthalate free resins to line its bottles, but it declines to reveal the composition of those resins. As with steel, aluminum can be recycled but is energetically very costly to produce. Glass Glass bottles are easy to find cheaply: a simple store-bought juice or tea bottle can be washed and repurposed for water-carrying duty. Canning jars are just as easy to find. Glass is stable at a wide range of temperatures, and will not leak chemicals into your water. Glass is easily recyclable. The main drawback of glass is, of course, that it can shatter when dropped. For that reason, glass is not allowed at many beaches, public pools, parks, and campgrounds. However, some manufacturers produce glass bottles wrapped in a shatter-resistant coating. If the glass inside breaks, the shards remain inside the coating. An additional drawback of glass is its weight Ã¢â¬â gram-conscious backpackers will prefer lighter options. Conclusion At this moment, food-grade stainless steel and glass water bottles are associated with fewer uncertainties. Personally, I find the simplicity and lower economic and environmental costs of glass appealing. Most of the time, however, I find drinking tap water from an old ceramic mug perfectly satisfying. Sources Cooper et al. 2011. Assessment of Bisphenol A Released from Reusable Plastic, Aluminium and Stainless Steel Water Bottles. Chemosphere, vol. 85. Natural Resources Defense Council. Plastic Water Bottles. Scientific American.Ã BPA-Free Plastic Containers May Be Just as Hazardous.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Historical Accuracy in The Mistress of The Art of Death In many historical fiction books, some events are portrayed accurately, while others are based on false information. In one historical fiction book, after the deaths of many children, people in a British kingdom are quick to blame the Jews. In order to prove the Jews innocent (so as to keep the taxes that the Jewish merchants provide), the king hires a group of detectives and doctors, including one woman, Adelia. Because she is a woman, she is forced to do her work in secrecy, so as to not invalidate her research because of women s role in society. This shows both discrimination towards Jews, and the role of women in society, and reflects many events that did happen in history. Ariana FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s The Mistress of the Art of Death accurately portrays the prejudice shown towards the Jews and the restriction of the jobs available to women during the time. The discrimination shown towards Jews during the time, and their use as scapegoats, is accurately portrayed in this novel, and is used to propel the plot and create an interesting conflict. In the book, the king is talking to one of his advisors, who is Jewish, about what the peasants are saying in response to the deaths of their children. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"they believe the Jews are torturing and killing their childrenÃ¢â¬ (Franklin 7). This blaming of an unexplainable event on the Jews can be seen many times throughout history. One example of this was during the Ã¢â¬Å"black deathÃ¢â¬ , whenShow MoreRelatedComparison of How John Donne and Andrew Marvell Present Death in Poems To His Coy Mistress and Holy Sonnet X1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComparison of How John Donne and Andrew Marvell Present Death in Poems To His Coy Mistress and Holy Sonnet X In the poems To His Coy Mistress and Holy Sonnet X the idea of death plays a strong part in the overall messages of the poems. Both poets use effective but very different methods in order to put forward their views and/or to make a point about society. ====================================================================== John Donnes poem Holy Sonnet X is veryRead More Comparison of Shall I Compare Thee? and My Mistress Eyes are 953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1 Shall compare thee to a summers day? ======================================= Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of maie, And summers lease hath all to short a date: 5 Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, ============================================= And often is his gold complexion dimd, --------------------------------------- And every faire from faire sometime declines, ---------------------------------------------Read MoreThe Portrait Of Madame De Pompadour1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI was when I first saw the Portrait of Madame de Pompadour. French artist FranÃ §ois Boucher painted the legendary Portrait of Madame de Pompadour in 1756. He utilized oil on canvas to paint the 201 Ãâ" 157 cm (79.1 Ãâ" 61.8 in) portrait of the chief mistress to Louis XV, Jeanne Antoinette Poisson aka. The Marquise de Pompadour (also referred to as Madame de Pompadour). Boucher, who lived from 1703-70, was the archetypal painter of the French rococo, a style that subordinated subject matter to a lacyRead MoreThe Portrait Of Madame De Pompadour1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI was when I first saw the Portrait of Madame de Pompadour. French artist FranÃ §ois Boucher painted the legendary Portrait of Madame de Pompadour in 1756. He utilized oil on canvas to paint the 201 Ãâ" 157 cm (79.1 Ãâ" 61.8 in) portrait of the chief mistress to Louis XV, Jeanne Antoinette Poisson aka. The Marquise de Pompadour (also referred to as Madame de Pompadour). Boucher, who lived from 1703-70, was the archetypal painter of the French rococo, a style that subordinated subject matter to a lacyRead MoreLouis XIV, The Sun God1530 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAll That Glitters is Not Gold Louis XIV, also known an The Sun God, was the King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. 1His reign as ruler lasted for more than 72 years and even today it is considered as the longest reign of any monarch in European history. During his tenure as ruler, King Louie XIV established France as the most powerful country in Europe, as he maintained a very strong economy and played a significant role in influencing the politics of other European countries. BesidesRead MoreThe Funerary Stela of Ta-Khaa-En-Bastet :Mistress of the House1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Introduction The following paper objective is to present the funerary stela of Ta-Khaa-En-Bastet, kept at the Cincinnati Art Museum. The stelaÃ¢â¬â¢s accession number is 1947.392 and is possibly from Abydos because of its imagery. The stela dates back to the Late Period of ancient Egypt, which is 664-332 BC. This funerary stela helps to provide data about the funerary practices and the responsibilities women had in ancient Egyptian society. Description of the stela The stela is deemed to be a round-toppedRead MoreThe Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood By John Everett Millais996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith the academy teaching students to mimic renaissance masters like Raphael, and sought to create art reminiscent of the medieval period. In addition for their distaste for renaissance perfection in art the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood were inspired by the theories of writer and art critic, John Ruskin. Ruskin encouraged artist to go back to nature, as well as show moral and material truth in their art via the use of symbols and more naturalistic depictions of nature (Harrison, Wood and Gaiger, 200)Read More Comparing Shakespeares Sonnet 18 with To his Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesComparing Shakespeares Sonnet 18 with To his Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell I will be comparing two poems, Ã¢â¬ËShall I Compare TheeÃ¢â¬ ¦?Ã¢â¬â¢ with Ã¢â¬ËTo His Coy MistressÃ¢â¬â¢, I will examine the purposes of each poem and the techniques used by the two poets to convey ideas and to achieve purposes. Sonnet 18 was written by WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s Shakespeare between 1564 and 1616. The poem Ã¢â¬ËTo his Coy MistressÃ¢â¬â¢ was written by Andrew Marvell. The Purposes of the two poems are different, the purpose of Sonnet 18 isRead MoreThe Scent Of Green Mango1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdealing with some hardships and that the family is mourning the death of their daughter To, who would have been the same age as her. As Mui spends more time around the family, the mistress begins to look to Mui as her own daughter and without knowing Mui helped her cope with ToÃ¢â¬â¢s death while still managing to run the textile business. The father, being self-absorbed rarely left the house for feeling guilty about his daughter s death and ignoring the demands of his two young sons. He eventuallyRead More To His Coy Mistress Essay807 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHis Coy Mistressquot; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Either you have sex with me or you die. This is a very strong statement which, when said, has to get someones attention; and that is exactly what Andrew Marvell intends for the reader in this poem. He wants the undivided attention of this mistress so that he can scare her and rush her into making a decision the way he wants and in due time. Filled with time flavored symbolism, this carpe diem poem, quot;To His Coy Mistressquot; by
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What I hope to do in this paper is to show that many of the philosophies Enrique Dussel writes about in his book Twenty Theses on Politics, have a direct correlation to what has become to be known as ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDirty War,Ã¢â¬â¢ with a particular interest on the struggle of the people, the ignorance towards them and the idea that they did not exist to their capturersÃ¢â¬â¢ except as Ã¢â¬Ëthings at the disposal of the powerful.Ã¢â¬â¢ (TTP pg. 79). Their reaction to this type of oppression, after years of detention, torture and death, touches upon DusselÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of the irruption of the collective conscious of a community that breaks the hold of the oppressor and ignites into a collective dissent. First, I will give a brief history of the Dirty War, as I feel it is necessary to understand the landscape at this time and what influenced this collective conscious, followed by a discussion and outline of DusselÃ¢â¬â¢s direct experience and observations surrounding Latin America during this incredibly tumultuous period of time. The essay concludes with a summary of how these principles were utilized in Argentina during and after the Dirty War and how education and open dialogue has influenced the character and the direction of those communities effected, today. Between 1973 and 1984, almost 30,000 Argentines were murdered or Ã¢â¬Ëdisappeared.Ã¢â¬â¢ The result of a military coup dÃ¢â¬â¢Ã ©tat during which security forces and death squads acting in the form of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, or Ã¢â¬ËTriple A;Ã¢â¬â¢ huntedShow MoreRelatedSeeing Through The Eyes Of The Polish Revolution : Solidarity And The Struggle Against Communism904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSeeing Through the Eyes of the Polish Revolution: Solidarity and the Struggle against Communism in Poland, social scientist Jack M BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s 2013 book, argues that the formation and history of SolidarnoÃ âºÃâ¡ provides useful information on social processes in historical events and how those influence historical understanding. Like Ost, Bloom comes at his subject with an interest in social movements, but relies primarily on interviews to examine the social side of SolidarnoÃ âºÃâ¡Ã¢â¬â¢s formation. These subjectsRead MoreWhat The Title Of Hobsbawm s Book Can Indicate At A First Glance947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Despite what the title of HobsbawmÃ¢â¬â¢s book can indicate at a first glance, his work is neither a step-by-step textbook of factual information about how history should be written nor a series of directly given guidelines that historians should follow. Instead it is a book composed of twenty-one essays that represent his own work transformed from their previous form as lectures, contributions to conferences or articles and reviews in different journals. As Hobsbawm himself explains, his reflectionsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Dollarocracy 1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAfter reading Nichols and McChesneyÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Dollarocracy, I am able to analyze their work and comment about the ideas expressed within the text. I found this book informative but also very boring to read. The book is very informative because they encompass the ideas surrounding the media, the rich, journalism, and politics to a high extent. For example, the writers spent the entire third chapter, 30 pages, re viewing the history of three Supreme Court justices as they ruled on crucial case revolvingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Future Of Reputation 1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgrowth and influence of society for over twenty years now. Three authors, Neil Postman, Daniel Solove, and Walter Lippmann have explored how various media and symbols have shaped society through history to today. Postman, in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Public Discourse in Age of Show Business saw the dangers in the medium of television turning the serious subjects of religion, the news, and particularly politics into forms of entertainment. In his book, future of reputation, David Solove arguesRead More What was Montesquieu?s aim in writing The Spirit of the Laws?748 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Ã¢â¬ËI ask a favour that I fear will not be granted; it is that one not judge by a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s reading the work of twenty years, that one approve or condemn the book as a whole and not some few sentences. If one wants to seek the design of the author, one can find it only in the design of the work.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Montesquieu 1989: preface) The Spirit of the Laws took Montesquieu twenty years to write and was first published in Geneva in 1748. It was distributed freely, without the hindrance of censorship and deemedRead MoreWhat Was Montesquieus Aim in Writing the Spirit of the Laws?776 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃâI ask a favour that I fear will not be granted; it is that one not judge by a moment s reading the work of twenty years, that one approve or condemn the book as a whole and not some few sentences. If one wants to seek the design of the author, one can find it only in the design of the work. (Montesquieu 1989: preface) The Spirit of the Laws took Montesquieu twenty years to write and was first published in Geneva in 1748. It was distributed freely, without the hindrance of censorship and deemedRead MoreDevil Highway Essay799 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Highway By Luis Alberto Urrea The DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Highway by Luis Alberto Urrea traces the journeys of twenty-six men traveling across the border through one of the most treacherous deserts known to man Ã¢â¬Å"The DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s Highway.Ã¢â¬ The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose was to let the world be aware of the events going on all around, with the simple modes of persuasion (pathos, ethos, and logos) Urrea makes you consider what worlds, political and economic, have we created that push humans into impossible journeysRead MoreArc Of Justice : A Saga Of Race, Civil Rights, And Murder1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnna Raisch Professor Hagood Michigan History 10 November 2015 Arc of Justice Analysis Bibliography: Boyle, Kevin. Arc of Justice: A Saga of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age. Henry Holt and Company, 2004. I. Thesis: a) I believe that the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation for writing the book was to shine a light on an important historical event. Arc of Justice was the first book written to document the story of the Sweet family. Not only does the story explain the trial of Ossian and Gladys SweetRead MoreThe Global Challenges of Comparative Politics1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The Global Challenges of Comparative Politics Introduction to Comparative Politics-Studies how different countries both shape and are shaped by the world. 1989,2001, and 2008 define the current era of world politics-describes a particular important moment; critical juncture. A frequently cited date is 1989, when the Berlin wall was dismantled. 1989 ushered in three important changes. Marked the end of a bipolar world-marked the emergence of a unipolar world. Marked the triumphRead MoreComparative Politics Essay1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnecessary tool in the belt of any political scientist. Comparative politics is one of three main subfields in political science, alongside political theory and international relations. While political theory deals with theoretical issues about democracy, justice et cetera, comparative politics deals with more empirical questions. To use an example cited by Daniele Caramani in Ã¢â¬ËComparative PoliticsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2011), comparative politics is not interested in whether or not participation is good for democracy
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Impact of Leadership Attributes on Employess' Performance. Answer: Introduction The project highlights the impacts of the right leadership style that can help in improving the employees performance parameter to determine the accomplishment of the corporate goals and ensure the organisational success. Problem Statement The efficient leadership approach helps in developing the organisational context in developing the learning environment for the employees that helps in developing their performance parameter. On the contrary, the ineffective leadership characteristics can even affect the employees work performance as well. The current advancements in the business field develop the flexible approaches in the workplace. The leaders often become much dependent to the employees due to which the lack the closer supervision (Chen et al., 2014). It affects the work performance in a significant way. It is thus necessary for the leaders to adopt the right approach to guide the employees that can motivate them to work in a better way and increase the performance level as well. Research Aim The research aims to identify the impact of the appropriate leadership trait to improve the performance parameter of the employees. Research Question What are the specific leadership styles can be adopted to achieve organisational excellence? How the effective leadership attributes create impacts on the employees performance? What are the major challenges faced in developing the effective performance level of the employees? Secondary Analysis The effective leadership style promotes the employee satisfaction that eventually leads to develop the efficient performance outcome. A leader is responsible in motivating the workforce and leading them towards the right direction to ensure success. According to Mulki, Caemmerer and Heggde (2015), a leader should be differentiated from others by judging the qualities and attributes. An efficient leader maintains the balance between the performance, business foresight, and characteristic values. The leadership styles are generally categorized into five forms. First is Autocratic Leader, who has the right to take the individual decision without seeking help from any other employee. On the other hand, democratic leaders are collaborative in nature and undertake the organisational decision by consulting with others. The next is the transactional leaders, who decide either to punish or reward the employee that depends on the performance outcome. The laissez faire leaders provide the full authority to the employees and depend on their ability. It often lacks the closer supervision that affect the performance level of the associated workers (Nanjundeswaraswamy Swamy, 2014). Finally, the transformational leaders help the employees improve their personal and professional attributes (Breevaart et al., 2016). This leadership style is quite effective to promote a learning based scenario within an organisation and develop the high level of performance. Recommendation The research problem is widely focusing on the ineffective attributes of the laissez faire leaders that prevent the employees from learning the innovative approaches and developing their professional skills. However, observing the outcome of the secondary information, it can be interpreted that the leaders can adopt transformational leadership style for leading the associated workers. It would motivate the employees to learn innovative work functions and improve both the professional and personal skills. In addition to this, this leadership style would even promote the high level of performance parameter that comes out of higher job satisfaction. References Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Derks, D. (2016). Who takes the lead? A multi?source diary study on leadership, work engagement, and job performance.Journal of Organizational Behavior,37(3), 309-325. Chen, X. P., Eberly, M. B., Chiang, T. J., Farh, J. L., Cheng, B. S. (2014). Affective trust in Chinese leaders: Linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance.Journal of management,40(3), 796-819. Mulki, J. P., Caemmerer, B., Heggde, G. S. (2015). Leadership style, salesperson's work effort and job performance: the influence of power distance.Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management,35(1), 3-22. Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., Swamy, D. R. (2014). Leadership styles.Advances in management,7(2), 57.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Political Crisis American political cartoons often follow the general displeasure of the government by the American people. They run the gamut from economics to foreign policy to the overwhelming popular topic of bureaucracy. As an avid reader of political cartoons on a daily basis I enjoy the humor and cynicism found within these forms of speech. Not only can they poke fun at politicians for their behavior, but, they often raise a strong sense of values and morals in the person that reads them. Whether a person agrees or disagrees with the way a certain topic is portrayed in the cartoon it accomplishes the artists goal of making their reader stop and ponder for a moment about the topic being covered and how it relates to them. From topics currently facing the United Nations, our federal government or current news events, the cartoonists use a medium that was once reserved for innocent humor and changes it so that it draws the readers attention (since it is a cartoon and people seem to enjoy reading the funnies), and makes a statement, whether direct or indirect, that often makes people speak about or try and change the topics outcome. Since the beginning of America political cartoons have often portrayed government officials as inept and sometimes just plain stupid. Politicians are very easy targets for the press and so become the subject of many daily papers editorial page cartoon. Although sometimes the cartoonist draws on current events and pay tribute to people who are often thought of with reverence. Take for example Charles Schultz, on the day following his death most cartoons as well as political cartoons payed homage to a person who is considered the greatest cartoonist of all time. Other cartoon strips showed their characters attending his funeral or missing him in some other way. While the most poignant political cartoon I remember about his death was by a cartoonist Mike Thompson of the Detroit free press. It showed Charlie Brown walking through the gates of heaven with an older man walking beside him and saying to him, ? Now, a few pointers about kicking a football?. The person walking with Charlie Brown was Tom Landry. Political cartoons stay on the pulse of current affairs and in doing so tries to draw the attention of their audience to the topic and nudges them to take some kind of action. So if you want to know about how a segment of America feels, turn to their editorials and read the political cartoon. Political Issues
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Video game Essay Example Video game Essay Video game Essay In this century, the mass media have come to rival with parents, school, and religion as the most influential institution in individuals lives. There has always been contemplation on whether media is the spark that ignites violence in individuals. Depictions of violence often glamorize vicious behavior. They offend the society and feel less able to respond to others in a sensitive, caring way. This essay will analyze the effects of violent media on the minds of individuals. While it focuses on media vastly, other contributing factors like emotional processing factors or exposure to violence might be reasons too. The Bobo doll experiment was conducted using children as samples and to see how they respond to the behavior they see (Bandura, A. , Ross, D. amp; Ross, S. A. , 1961) The subjects were 36 boys and 36 girls enrolled in the Stanford University Nursery School, with a mean age of 52 months. Subjects were divided into eight experimental groups of six subjects each and a control group consisting of 24 subjects. The idea of this experiment is to observe the behavior of the individual after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll. There are different variations of the experiment. The most notable experiment measured the individuals behavior after seeing the model get rewarded, punished or experience no consequence for beating up the Bobo doll. It was seen that male subjects, for example, exhibited more physical (tÃ = 2. 07,Ã pÃ lt; . 05) and verbal imitative aggression (tÃ = 2. 51,Ã pÃ lt; . 05), more non-imitative aggression (tÃ = 3. 5,Ã pÃ lt; . 025), and engaged in significantly more aggressive gun play (tÃ = 2. 12,Ã pÃ lt; . 05) following exposure to the aggressive male model than the female subjects. According to Bandura and Ross (1961) prediction that exposure of subjects to aggressive models increases the probability of aggressive behavior is clearly confirmed as the individuals imitate the models behavior by showing physical and verbal aggr ession. The researcher concludes that when violent media is observed or watch children tend to act the same way. It is widely believed by many researchers that exposure to violent media causes desensitization towards violence, making violence seems alright and in turn increasing their aggression. The analysis of Carnagey, Anderson and Bushman(2007) examine, how media not only influences violence but a fresh insight towards the desensitization to real life violence. The participants were 257 college students (124 men and 133 women) who received extra course credit in exchange for their voluntary participation. All participants were tested individually and were told that the purpose of the study was to evaluate different types of media. After consent procedures were completed, 5Ã min baseline HR (Heart rate) and GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) measurements were taken, using finger electrodes placed on the three middle fingers of the non-dominant hand. After 5Ã min, the experimenter removed the electrodes. Participants played a randomly assigned violent or nonviolent video game for 20Ã min. Next, participants watched a 10-min videotape of real violence in four contexts: courtroom outbursts, police confrontations, shootings, and prison fights. In one scene, for example, two prisoners repeatedly stab another prisoner. HR and GSR were monitored continuously while they watched the real-life violence. The results demonstrate that playing a violent video game, even for just 20Ã min, can cause people to become less physiologically aroused by real violence. Participants randomly assigned to play a violent video game had relatively lower HR and GSR while watching actual footage of people being beaten, stabbed, and shot than did those randomly assigned to play a nonviolent video game. With recent developments, the process of mind mapping also known as Stroop tests( Kalnin et al, 2010) have helped identify the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents. 22 controls and 22 adolescents with a past of aggressive behavior completed an emotional Stroop task during an fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). The foremost images pointed out that controls with a past of low media violence exposure exhibited more activity in the inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulated. On the other hand, in the individuals that had past of aggressive behavior demonstrated less activation in the right Amygdala, compared with those with low media violence exposure. It safe to assess that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits but will still affect an individual (Kalnin et al, 2010). While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. Today 99% of homes have televisions. According to Pediatrics(2001), of all animated feature films produced in the United States between 1937 and 1999, 100% portrayed violence, and the amount of violence with intent to injure has increased through the years. On average, children ages 6-11 spend 42 hours a week in front of a TV- watching television, DVDs, DVR and videos, and using a game console. Kids ages 12-16 spend about 32 hours a week in front of the TV. The vast majority of this viewing (97%) is of live TV ( Med, n. d). Televised violence and the presence of television in American households have increased steadily over the years, resulting in violent behavior. Like there are two sides to a coin there are also other factors that induce violence, according to Ferguson, Miguel amp; Hartled (2009) who claim that while others claim a positive relationship between both violence and the media, they believe so otherwise. Violence has become a serious public health problem with children and adolescents suffering greater victimization than any other age group (Finkelhor amp; DziubaLeatherman, 1994). Media to a certain degree is a causation factor of violence, but there are other factors as well. One such factor discussed in the journal is Ã¢â¬Å"emotional susceptibilityÃ¢â¬ . It is defined as the tendency to experience feelings of discomfort, helplessness, inadequacy and vulnerability according to Caprara (1985, cited in Bushman, B. J, amp; Green, G. R). Studies have agreed- and disagreed Ã¢â¬â the verdicts of whether or not exposure to violent media indeed induces violence. All these findings are done in order to arrive at a simple conclusion while taking account the exposure, the length of exposure and other factors surrounding the individual. These studies have their banes and their boons, and when looked at all together oneÃ¢â¬â¢s advantage covers up anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s disadvantage like in all situations. In conclusion, it can be ascertained that if violent media is not the main factor, it is still an important constituent in deciding violence. References Bandura, A. , Ross, D. amp; Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-82. Retrieved from http://psychclassics. yorku. ca/Bandura/bobo. htm
Friday, February 21, 2020
PHILOSOPHY-Check details below - Essay Example This movement to change the definition and value of marriage between a man and a woman is morally wrong if you believe in Christianity, bad for family values, bad for society, and bad for marriage. (Corvino, 2002) Ã Some people believe that gay marriage should be legal in every U.S. state and be recognized in the same way that a traditional marriage is between a man and a woman. Gay partners hold commitment ceremonies, some states recognize civil unions, and Massachusetts now allows same-sex marriages. However, according to these groups, gay couples should be entitled to the same civil rights, privileges, and legal protection as traditional married couples. However, this wont happen until gay marriage is recognized by the federal government. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Marriage between man and woman is the most structured form of family style because there is a balance of the sexes that complement each other, and because it also involves masculine behaviors and feminine behaviors that are important for role modeling for children. The other advantage of a heterosexual couple is that when a family is raised, there is absolute clearness in who is the biological parents, where as in a gay marriage who will teach the appropriate behaviors to the children if any, and how will they justify the existence of their children when adopted or when created by a surrogate mother? In addition, gay marriage will affect our understanding of human relations and institutions because of the different issues like divorce, affairs, health benefits, and psychological problems impacted on the children who are raised in this kind of atmosphere. The other consequence of gay marriage would be the distortion of the definition of marriage itself . For thousands of years it has been understood that marriage was between a man and a woman, and that it included a concept of